Reconstructing a Lost Holocaust Family

by

Carole Garbuny Vogel

 

This article was originally published in

Avotaynu:  The International Review of Jewish Genealogy, Volume XXII. No. 1, Spring 2006.

I have made changes in red to reflect information learned after this article was first published. I have also added photographs given to me by Jonathan Burg of London who tracked them down on visits to relatives in England, Israel, and the U.S, and I have posted a few relevant images from my collection.

For more than 30 years I have been trying to reconstruct the family of my grandfather, Dr. Moriz Löwy, a Viennese pediatrician. Moriz was part of a huge and close-knit extended Jewish family that had made the region of western Hungary and eastern Austria their home for more than 600 years. His ancestors had fled the Spanish Inquisition and in 1336 started the Jewish community of Mattersdorf, Hungary (now Mattersburg, Austria). In 1938, shortly after the Nazis seized power in Austria, my grandfather escaped with his wife and children, first to France then to England and the United States. Some of his relatives also found refuge outside of Nazi Europe, but most were stranded within.

 

My grandfather Dr. Moriz Lowy with his wife and children in June 1939, shortly after they arrived in New York City. I am certain that he sent a copy of this photo to his mother and sister who remained in Vienna.

 

I wanted to learn what happened to all of Moriz’s relatives who had been in Europe at the beginning of the Holocaust. But how could I identify and document the fate of more than a hundred people whose names I did not know and who had vanished without a trace? If survivors could be identified, how could I find them or their descendants? Göteborg, Havana, Jerusalem, Rio de Janeiro, and Shanghai were just a few of the places where family members initially had fled.

At first, I couldn’t even account for the whereabouts of Moriz’s own sister Frieda Löwy Sipser, who had survived the war, or of his mother who had perished. More than two decades later, I have not only documented their experiences but I have also discovered the fate of more than 400 of Moriz’s relatives.

 

 

Moriz’s brother Adolf Heinrich Löwy (1887-1972) fled to Palestine, their father Max Löwy (1859-1929) died of natural causes before the war, and mother Franziska Löwy née Kohn (1867-1943) who died of starvation and typhus in Theresienstadt Concentration Camp.

 

 

Starting the Research

Beginning in 1979, twenty years after my grandfather’s death, I contacted every surviving family member about whom I knew and pumped them for information. I diligently recorded names, places, and anecdotes, and always asked for contact information for other survivors or their children. In this way, I found branches of my family scattered all over the world: Argentina, Austria, Australia, Brazil, England, Israel, New Zealand, Sweden, Switzerland, even in East Berlin in the then DDR. I also discovered that people who married into the family were sometimes more knowledgeable about the family history than blood relatives.

I was able to learn the identities of most of my grandfather’s aunts, uncles, first cousins, and some second cousins, and at least established whether or not they had been murdered. I learned that Moriz’s mother, Franziska Kohn Löwy, had perished in Theresienstadt concentration camp, and that his sister Frieda had been confined in a War Relocation Authority detention camp in Oswego, New York. (See: “Oswego, New York: Wartime Haven for Jewish Refugees,” published in Avotaynu, Winter 1998, for a detailed description of I how traced Frieda’s wartime prisons and sanctuaries in Italy, and with the help of the U.S. Embassy at the Vatican, located the Italian families who had hidden her from the Germans.)

 

Moriz’s sister Frieda Sipser née Löwy fled to Italy during the Holocaust.

 

After depleting family resources, I turned to Project Search: The Holocaust and War Victims Tracing Service run by the American Red Cross, and requested information on 39 specific relatives of Moriz’s who had perished. Project Search in turn contacted the International Tracing Service in Arolsen, Germany, which is the largest repository of Nazi documentation in the world. Project Search also queried the national Red Cross societies of Austria, France, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia on my behalf, and looked into other sources. Over the course of a few years, Project Search provided answers for about half the people on my list, including Moriz’s mother. It provided her birth date, last address in Vienna, the date of her deportation to Theresienstadt, and date of her death.

In the book Totenbuch Theresienstadt I: Deportierte aus Österreich (Death Book Theresienstadt I: Deportation from Austria) (Wien: Herausgeber: Jüdisches Komite, für Theresienstadt, 1971) I found more than a dozen family members who had been deported to Theresienstadt. Beit Theresienstadt, the Theresienstadt Martyrs Remembrance Association in Givat Chaim-Ichud, Israel, supplied photocopies of their inmate records. The records gave the transport number and arrival date in Theresienstadt and sometimes the date of death and cremation. In the cases where the victims were sent to their death at other extermination centers, the transport information was also noted.

Memorial to the Jews Deported from France by Serge Klarsfeld, (Paris: 1983) revealed that Moriz’s cousin, Dr. Ignatz Deutsch, had been deported to Auschwitz with his wife and 10-year-old daughter on September 9, 1942. All the victim information in Klarsfeld’s book and in the Theresienstadt records is now included in the Yad Vashem database.

Search for family took me to the metrical records of the Jewish community of Nagymárton (the Hungarian name for Moriz’s ancestral town, Mattersburg, Austria), which I accessed on microfilm through the (Mormon) Family History Library. Using the microfilms, I traced all the branches of Moriz’s family back to the late 1700s or early 1800s, and then forward again. The records ended in 1921 so I obtained a substantial picture of the family branches that had stayed in Mattersburg.

Many family members, however, had taken advantage of changes in Austrian law in the mid-1800s that permitted Jews to settle throughout the Austria-Hungarian Empire instead of being restricted to a limited number of towns. Moriz’s paternal grandparents moved to Gloggnitz, and his maternal grandparents settled in Baden bei Wien, both in Lower Austria.

 

Collaboration with Other Researchers

In 1989, after learning that the synagogue in Baden was functional, I wrote a letter asking if anybody remembered my family. This was the beginning of a wonderful friendship with Thomas E. Shärf, the president of the Jüdischer Synagogenverein in Baden, the last remaining Jewish community in Lower Austria. Thomas was researching the Jews of Baden and could access local and national archives in Austria. I had photographs of the family, contact information, and the family history. We shared information freely. Although no synagogue records survive, in the Israelitische Kultusgmeinde Wien (IKG), the headquarters of the Vienna Jewish Community, Thomas located the Matrikel (vital record) books of the Jewish Community of Baden volumes I and II, (1837-78 and 1878-1937). Each book, a cross between a household registration book and birth register, provides birth information (not always accurate), as well as marriage and death records for Jews who had lived in Baden. Volume I has many gaps.

In the district court of Baden, Thomas found the Grundbuch (land book) for Baden so he was able to trace the history of the property owned by my family.

 

Moriz’s grandfather, Jakob Kohn (1839-1927)

 

 

Among Thomas’s many other incredible finds were the last will and testament of Moriz’s grandfather Jakob Kohn (1839-1927), and correspondence between Moriz’s brother Adolf Heinrich Löwy and the Nazi authorities in Austria. The latter dealt with the confiscation of the assets of the Bethaus (house of prayer) in Gloggnitz, the village in Lower Austria where Moriz had been raised and where his brother still lived. Adolf had already surrendered the savings book of the Bethaus to the Gloggnitz SA but requested in writing that the money in the account be used for a charity to benefit the needy people of Gloggnitz. This request generated much correspondence between the SA in Gloggnitz and various Nazi organizations in Vienna. Here is a translation of one of the memos:

6 October 1938

To: The Commissioner for the Reunification of Austria with the German Reich in Vienna

From: Hans Neich, SA office in Gloggnitz

The savings bank book has been brought to the Gloggnitz SA office by the Jew A. Löwy in the name of the Bethaus Gloggnitz. I was advised at the time by an assistant in legal matters of the Stillhalte Commission that divisions were not allowed to accept gifts from Jews. For this reason the SA office of Gloggnitz has returned the savings book to the Jew Löwy. After all, he cannot do anything with it, the account is frozen by the savings bank, and that is why it is possible to request the return of the book by the Jew immediately.  Please inform me if the SA is to confis­cate the book and forward it to you or not. 

Heil Hitler!

It took until January 15, 1940 for the case to be officially closed and the request denied. Thomas found these incredible Nazi-era documents in the in the Stillhaltekommissar files of the Archiv der Republik und Zwischenarchiv (Archive of the Republic) located in the Österreichisches Staatsarchiv (Austrian State Archive) in Vienna.

I had another fruitful relationship with a researcher from another town in Lower Austria. Gerhard Milchram, a curator at the Jüdischen Mueseum der Stadt Wien (Jewish Museum of Vienna), who was writing the history of the Jewish community of Neunkirchen, the large town where Moriz’s uncle Simon Löwy had lived. Gerhard provided me with the names, birth dates, professions, and addresses of family members in Neunkirchen, including information on children. This was quite a feat because the local Nazis in Neunkirchen had deliberately set the town hall on fire near the end of the war. The resulting blaze destroyed the birth, marriage, and death records of the Jews of Neunkirchen and surrounding villages, including those of my grandfather’s immediate family and many of his Löwy cousins.

This feat, however, was a minor miracle compared to what followed: For many of the victims Gerhard identified the ghetto or concentration camp where he or she had been deported. For most of the survivors he was able to tell me to which country they had immigrated.

            The research efforts of both Gerhard and Thomas have resulted in the publication of two magnificent books: Heilige Gemeinde Neunkirchen: Eine jüdische Heimatgeschichte (The Holy Community of Neunkirchen: A Jewish Local History) by Gerhard Milchram (Wien: Mandelbaum Verlag 2000) and Jüdisches Leben in Baden: Von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart (Jewish Life in Baden: From Its Early Beginning until the Present) by Thomas E. Shärf (Wien: Mandelbaum Verlag 2005). A bonus for me is that my family is discussed in both, and Gerhard even devoted an entire chapter to the Löwy in Gloggnitz.

            Gerhard had found my name in JewishGen’s Family Finder (JGFF) (www.jewishgen.org/jgff). Even before connecting with Gerhard, The JGFF had already become one of my most valuable research tools. I had discovered it in its pre-website form, the Jewish Genealogical Family Finder, a comput­er database list published by Avotaynu that was distributed to all Jewish Genealogical societies and made available during the societies’ meetings. The JGFF provides the family names and towns researched by genealogists, along with contact information.

I have met several long-lost relatives using this amazing tool. The most profound interaction was from a man named Deutsch who been born in 1938 and survived the war in hiding in Belgium with his mother. His father survived Auschwitz, and after the family was reunited post-war they immigrated to Australia. The father refused to talk about the past and they had been able to locate only one other branch of the family. As far as Mr. Deutsch knew the rest of the entire extended family had been annihilated. Not only was I delighted to tell him that his father and my grandfather were second cousins, but I was able to trace the family back for him to the late 1700s, show him that he had relatives all over the world, and connect him with several other surviving branches of the family living in Australia. They held a family “round up” in his honor.

 

Archives in Vienna  

The IKG Wien is the repository for the birth, marriage and death records of the Vienna Jewish community. In 2005, I visited the archives and found the vital records for two- dozen relatives, including the marriage record of my grandparents and the birth records of their three children. Death records of four of Moriz’s distant cousins were especially useful because the death dates and last home address of the deceased were keys to unlocking information at other archives.

The Österreich Nationalbibliothek (Austrian National Library) holds microfilms of the Neues Wiener Tageblatt and the Neue Freie Presse, two newspapers in which Jewish families placed obituaries. Knowing the death dates allowed me to find the death notices for two of the cousins. These obituaries provided the names of the decedents’ surviving children and grandchildren.

At the Wiener Stadt und Landesarchiv (Vienna city archives), I needed the death date and last address of the deceased to locate probate records. Like death notices, probate records provided the names of survivors but were even more useful because they also gave the ages of all the children, included the addresses for some, and gave the names and places of residence of the other nearest relatives or heirs mentioned in the will. In this archive I also found Meldezettel (household registration records) for my grandfather and a few of his relatives. These Meldezettel showed every address where they had lived and when, furnished the birth date and place, profession, names of the spouse and children, religion, departure date and place, which in some cases were death or deportation dates. My grandfather’s record showed that he left Vienna for France in July 1938.

I visited the Österreichische Staatsarchiv Kriegsarchiv (Austrian war archive) and with the help of an extraordinarily helpful archivist I reviewed the Stellungslisten (enlistment registers) for the Burgenland Bezirk (military district) of Mattersburg. In 1868, a universal conscription had been instituted in the Austrio-Hungarian Empire and all able-bodied men, regardless of religion, were obligated to serve three years of active duty. (In 1912, the requirement for active duty was reduced to two years.) Starting with the birth year of 1867 and going into the early 1890s, there was a Mattersburg Stellungslisten for nearly every year.

The Stellungslisten contain far more than draft registration information. They supply the birth year and place, name of father (and sometimes the mother’s name, occasionally with the maiden name), occupation, information about the actual service of each soldier and more. The information in the Stellungslisten can be used as a compass to find other service records. From Moriz’s World War I service record, I learned that he had served beyond the call of duty and had been nominated for the Goldenes Kreuz (gold cross).

Many of the men listed in the Stellungslisten ledgers of Mattersburg were born elsewhere and/or lived in other places. The key to being listed was the father’s citizenship. From these records I was able to identify cousins of Moriz’s who had been born in Italy, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia. It is unlikely that I ever would have discovered most of these individuals elsewhere.

 

Online Resources

The usefulness of the JewishGen website in Holocaust research cannot be overstated. In addition to the JGFF, JewishGen posts the Family Tree of the Jewish People (a searchable compilation of family trees of Jewish researchers), the JewishGen Holocaust Database (with more than a million entries related to Holocaust victims) the Yizkor Book Necrology Database (with more than 170,000 entries of victims), and much more.

The Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes (Documentation Centre of Austrian Resistance [DÖW], www.doew.at) has a searchable database with more than 62,000 Shoah victims from Austria. This site is useful for finding family groups; parents and their children were typically herded into ghettos or dispatched to concentration camps together. Consequently, it is a depressing research vehicle to use. 

The most depressing but also most useful website for Holocaust research by far is the one sponsored by Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Remembrance Authority in Jerusalem. (www.yadvashem.org) For nearly 50 years, Yad Vashem has been registering the names of Shoah victims in Pages of Testimony, which serve in lieu of gravestones for those who perished. To identify specific victims, Pages of Testimony are designed to provide personal details, such as parents’ names, date and place of birth, name of spouse and children, profession, residence before and during the war, as well as the fate of the individual. I have found far too many of my relatives in this memorial and sadly have discovered that often there is no Page of Testimony for relatives who were killed. The last step in reconstructing my family is to fill out a Page of Testimony for each victim.

 

Case Study: The Schotten Family

The following shows how I reconstructed the extended family of Moriz’s paternal grandmother Regina Österreicher Löwy (1822-1900), the daughter of Simon Moses Österreicher and Rosalia Holzer. In the metrical records of the Jewish community of Nagymárton/Mattersburg (which I accessed on FHL microfilm), I was able to identify only one sibling of Regina’s—Johanna Oesterreicher (1837- 1904). In 1868, Johanna married Jakob Goldberger, the son of Sebastian Goldberger, and had at least three children:

(1) Berta (Betti/Blumele) Goldberger was born in 1875, and at age 19 she married Heinrich (Chaim Yeshaiya) Schotten, who was likely her cousin. He was the son of Samuel (Shmuel Aron) Schotten and Kati (Gela) Oesterreicher.

(2) Katalyn Goldberger was born in 1879, and became the wife of Salamon Pollack in 1907.

(3) Simon Goldberger was born in 1871.

 

 

Johanna Goldberger née Oesterreicher (1837-1904) mother of Betti/Blumele

 

 

Kati (Gela) Schotten née Oesterreicher was likely a cousin or perhaps even a sister of Johanna Goldberger née Oesterreicher. So far I have been unsuccessful in learning the names of her parents.

 

 

Berta (Betti/Blumele) Schotten née Goldberger

 

 

Heinrich Schotten’s Hebrew name was Chaim Yeshaiya but initially I had been told it was Chaim Yishai. This confused me because one of his brothers was Josef (Yishai) and in Jewish tradition two brothers cannot have the same name unless one of them died before the other was born.

 

Blumele Goldberger and Chaim Schotten’s children

Blumele and Chaim were quite prolific. Beginning with the arrival of their son Jakob Schotten on 16 Feb 1896 and ending with the birth of their daughter Gizella on 24 Nov 1913, they produced twelve children. I learned much later that there was a thirteenth child, the eldest: Rosa Schotten, who was born in 1895.

 

The Schotten children who appeared in the Mattersdorf metrical records:

1. Jakob Schotten (16 Feb 1896)

2. Ignatz Schotten (22 Jul 1897)

3. Malvine Schotten (13 Sep 1898)

4. Siegmund Schotten (18 Nov 1899)

5. Helen Schotten (11 Jan 1901)

6. Irma Schotten (12 May 1902)

7. Moritz Schotten (10 Aug 1904)

8. Johanna Schotten (16 Nov 1905)

9. Ester Schotten (12 Dec 1907)

10. Sofia Schotten (29 Apr 1910)

11. Anna Schotten (3 Jul 1911)

12. Gizella Schotten (24 Nov 1913)

Plus Rosa Schotten makes 13. Her birth record is not found in the Mattersdorf metrical records.


 

The Schotten daughters in happier times. Right to left (front): A cousin, Johanna/Chana/Janka, Sophie, Esther, Irma, (Back row): Malvine and Menachem Lipschutz (her husband); At the tree - a cousin's daughter

 

All but two reached adulthood: Moritz died about a month after his first birthday, and Gizella, the youngest, died in 1916, at the age of 2½.[i] I had the sense that the Schottens adhered to Jewish tradition more closely than my more secularized grandfather, who had practiced family planning and fathered only three children.

I shared my list of Schotten names with my grandfather’s cousin, Joseph Spiegel, whom I had discovered in St, Louis a few years into my project. I figured that by the time of the Anschluss (annexation of Austria by Germany) in 1938, most of the surviving Schotten children would have been married and had young families of their own. I hoped that Joseph could tell me what had happened to the family and how to contact them. I didn’t anticipate his reply:

"The deportations in Vienna were going on fast and furious and my mother and [sister] Regina moved from one place to another. Mr. Schotten and his wife stayed in Vienna at that time. He had some connections to help people cross the border into Hungary and he approached my mother to avail herself of this help, but for a time she did not dare accept his offer. One day, Mr. Schotten warned my mother that to wait any further would jeopardize her existence. Regina and my mother left the next day. A Hungarian farmer's wife showed up and took them across the border...The sad part of the story is that Mr. Schotten got his own children across the border into Hungary but they were later deported and never heard from again. Chaim and Blumele Schotten were later deported to Theresienstadt but survived and lived in New York..."[ii]

 

Photograph of Heinrich Schotten taken circa 1935, about five or six years before he was deported to Theresienstadt.

 

I cannot imagine anything more tragic than a parent losing a child, yet alone ten of them. Suddenly my hunt for long-lost relatives took on a most somber note and instead of planning a joyful family reunion I began the sad task of documenting the lives and deaths of the Schotten children. I was unable to make much progress until recently when Yad Vashem Pages of Testimony and other Holocaust records became available online. The happiness that I had experienced 20 years ago with the discovery of each new Schotten child in the Mattersdorf birth records was now being matched with the despair of finding proof of their murders.


 

[i] Gizella Schotten death record. Date of death: 4 Mar 1916. Age: 2 (born circa 1912). Birthplace: Mattersdorf. Place of death: Mattersdorf. Parents: Heinrich Schotten and Betti Goldberger. Cause of death: göresök [görcs means spasm]. Death reported by her mother on 5 Mar. Nagymárton death registrations 1902-1920, FHL microfilm 0700405, p. 2 entry 11. [Researched by CGV 2006]

[ii] Letter from Joseph Spiegel; St. Louis, MO to C.G. Vogel17 Dec 1990.

 

 

Fate of the Schotten’s daughters:

1. The eldest daughter was Rosa (Chaya Sara) Schotten (born 1895). I did not learn of her existence until late in the research process. Her fate is discussed later.

2. The second daughter, Malvine Schotten (born 1898), married Emanuel Lipshütz of Deutschkreuz, Austria, and they made their home in Mattersburg. During the Holocaust, they fled to France. Emanuel was captured in Paris and deported to Auschwitz on 22 Jun 1942. He perished there a few weeks later on 10 July 1942.[i] Malvine hid in southern France near the Spanish border with her teenage daughter Vera Lipshütz (born 29 Dec 1925). They were captured and deported to Auschwitz on 9 Sep 1942.[ii] [iii] Malvine had one daughter who survived the war and submitted pages of testimony for Malvine and Vera at Yad Vashem.[iv] She gave her name and address as Herma Migliavacca of Milan, Italy, but I was unable to contact her. I later learned that Herma had married an Italian man who was quite older than she and a functionary of the Italian Communist party. They had a daughter. During the war Herma was hidden by her husband’s family. It is not clear whether she married during or after the war. Unfortunately, Herma had already died by the time I learned of her existence. 

Malvine Schotten and Emanuel Lipshütz had a third child-- a son, Hashy Lipshütz—whom I also learned about late in my research. He is discussed later.

 

3. The third daughter, Helene Schotten (born 1901) lived at Schmelzgasse 9, in Vienna during the Shoah, I learned her married name—Nichtburg—from the DÖW website and a Page of Testimony submitted in 1999 by Pnina Horowitz of Jerusalem who identified herself as a niece.[v] [vi] From this I could not tell whether Pnina was a niece by blood or marriage. Helene’s son, Beno (Gershon Baruch) Nichtburg shared the same address as Helene but there was no information about Helene’s husband or other possible children.[vii] At some point Helene and Gershon Baruch escaped to Hungary, undoubtedly with the aid of Helene’s father. The boy apparently died in an internment camp in Budapest. Helene was deported from Hungary to Auschwitz concentration camp on 5 July 1944. (More later)

 

 

Portrait of Helene (Rochel Leah) Nichtburg née Schotten

 

3. Irma Schotten (born 1902) married Deszö (Desiderius) Weisz, and they made their home with their two children in the second district of Vienna, on Taborstrasse, the same street where my grandfather had lived. During the Holocaust, Irma, her husband, and daughter Hilda (born 1927), fled to Italy where they were interned in a labor camp in northern Italy by the Italian fascists. When the Germans took over northern Italy in Fall 1943, the family was arrested in Livorno Ferraris, a municipality in the Piedmont region in the northwestern part of the country. The were sent to San Vittore Prison in Milan, and from there in 1944, they were deported to Auschwitz, where Deszö and Hilda died. [viii] [ix] Irma was transferred from Auschwitz to Stutthof concentration camp, where she perished.[x] A Page of Testimony by Pnina Horowitz revealed that Irma had a child who survived.[xi] I didn’t know the child’s name or whereabouts during the war but I was able to track him down after I published this article. His name was Ottfried Weisz  (more later). I deduced from Irma’s Page of Testimony that Pnina was a blood relative but I was unable to reach her.

 

 

Irma Weisz née  Schotten with her daughter Hilda, circa 1936.

 

Hilda Weisz, circa 1935

 

 

Deszö (Desiderius) Weisz, circa 1935

 

Deszö Weisz with his children Hilda and Ottfried, 1936.

 

4. Pnina also submitted a Page of Testimony for Janka Schotten (born 1905).[xii] Pnina apparently did not know Janka’s married name—Johanna (Chana) Schwarz—or that Janka/Chana had one son who survived the Holocaust and one who perished. (More later) From the DÖW website I learned that Chana had lived with her parents in Vienna during wartime, fled to Hungary (with the help of her father), and was deported to Auschwitz on 5 July 1944, the same day as her sister Helene.[xiii]

 

 

Janka (Chana) Schwarz née Schotten.

 

5. Esther Schotten (born 1907) was also remembered in a Page of Testimony submitted by Pnina, but the tribute did not include any mention of a husband or children, or Esther’s whereabouts during wartime.[xiv]

 

6. Sofia Schotten (born 1910) also seemed to have disappeared without a trace but was remembered by Pnina who submitted a Page of Testimony for her.  (More later)

 

 

NEXT --->

 


[i] Emanuel Lipshütz entry. Death Books from Auschwitz: Remnants. Reports edited by State Museum of Auschwitz-Birkenau. (München: K.G. Saur, 1995.), p. 14682/1942. <Yad Vashem online>

3 Malvina Lipschutz née Schotten entry. The U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum French Deportation List, p. 58, line 109. < USHMM online>

[iii] Vera Lipshütz entry. Memorial de la deportation des juifes de france by Beate et Serge Klarsfeld, Paris: 1978. Transport 30 from Drancy to Auschwitz. <Yad Vashem online>

[iv] Vera Lipshütz and Malvine Lipshütz neé  Schotten Pages of Testimony. Submitted by Herma Migliavacca neé Lipshütz  <Yad Vashem online>

[v] Helene Nichtburg neé Schotten entry. List of Victims from Austria. Namentliche Erfassung der österreichischen Holocaustopfer Dokumentationsarchiv des österreichischen Widerstandes, DÖW, Wien. <DÖW online>

[vi] Helene Nichtburg neé Schotten Page of Testimony submitted by Pnina Horowitz neé Schotten, 1999. <Yad Vashem online>

[vii] Beno Nichtburg entry. List of Victims from Austria < DÖW online>

[viii] Irma Weisz neé Schotten Page of Testimony submitted by Pnina Horowitz neé Schotten, 1999. <Yad Vashem online>

[ix] Dezö (Desiderius) Weisz and Hilda Weisz Pages of Testimony submitted by Pnina Horowitz neé Schotten, 1999. <Yad Vashem online>

[x] Irma Weisz neé Schotten entry. German Jews at Stutthof concentration camp listing. <JewishGen Holocaust Database Online> 

[xi] Irma Weisz neé Schotten Page of Testimony <Yad Vashem online>

[xii] Janka Schotten Page of Testimony <Yad Vashem online>

[xiii] Johanna Schwartz entry. List of Victims from Austria. < DÖW online>

[xiv] Esther Schotten Page of Testimony <Yad Vashem online>